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Ntchito mfundo ya mpope maginito

Nthawi: 2021-05-11 Phokoso: 288

Pampu ya maginito imakhala ndi magawo atatu: pampu, maginito pagalimoto, ndi mota. Chigawo chachikulu cha maginito pagalimoto chimakhala ndi rotor yakunja ya maginito, mkati mwa maginito rotor ndi manja opanda maginito kudzipatula. Pamene galimoto imayendetsa chowotcha chakunja cha maginito kuti chizungulire, mphamvu ya maginito imatha kudutsa mpweya wa mpweya ndi zinthu zopanda maginito, ndikuyendetsa mkati mwa maginito rotor yolumikizidwa ndi chopondera kuti chizungulire synchronously, kuzindikira kufalikira kwa mphamvu, ndikusintha mphamvu. sindikiza mu chisindikizo chokhazikika. Chifukwa shaft pampu ndi mkati maginito rotor zatsekedwa kwathunthu ndi thupi la mpope ndi manja kudzipatula, vuto "kuthamanga, kutulutsa, kudontha, ndi kutayikira" amathetsedwa kwathunthu, ndi kutayikira kwa zoyaka moto, kuphulika, zapoizoni ndi zowononga media mkati. makampani oyenga ndi mankhwala kudzera pa chisindikizo cha pampu amachotsedwa. Zowopsa zomwe zingachitike pachitetezo zimatsimikizira thanzi lathupi ndi malingaliro komanso kupanga kotetezeka kwa ogwira ntchito.

1. Mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito pampu yamagetsi
N awiriawiri a maginito (n ndi nambala yofananira) amasonkhanitsidwa mkati ndi kunja kwa maginito maginito a maginito actuator mokhazikika, kotero kuti maginito apanga dongosolo lathunthu lolumikizana ndi maginito. Pamene mitengo yamkati ndi yakunja ya maginito ikutsutsana wina ndi mzake, ndiko kuti, kusuntha kwapakati pakati pa mitengo iwiri ya maginito Φ = 0, mphamvu ya maginito ya maginito ndiyo yotsika kwambiri panthawiyi; pamene mitengo ya maginito imazungulira pamtengo womwewo, kusuntha kwapakati pakati pa mitengo iwiri ya maginito Φ = 2π / n, mphamvu ya maginito ya maginito imakhala yochuluka panthawiyi. Pambuyo pochotsa mphamvu yakunja, popeza mitengo ya maginito ya maginito imathamangitsana, mphamvu ya maginito idzabwezeretsanso maginito ku mphamvu yotsika kwambiri ya maginito. Kenako maginito amasuntha, kuyendetsa maginito ozungulira.

2. Mapangidwe ake
1. Maginito osatha
Maginito osatha opangidwa ndi maginito osowa padziko lapansi okhazikika amakhala ndi kutentha kosiyanasiyana (-45-400 ° C), kukakamiza kwambiri, komanso ma anisotropy abwino polowera kudera la maginito. Demagnetization sidzachitika pamene mitengo yomweyo ili pafupi. Ndi gwero labwino la maginito.
2. Kudzipatula
Chombo chodzipatula chachitsulo chikagwiritsidwa ntchito, mkono wodzipatula umakhala mu sinusoidal alternating magnetic field, ndipo eddy current imalowetsedwa mu gawo la mtanda perpendicular kulunjika kwa mzere wa mphamvu ya maginito ndikusandulika kutentha. Mawu a eddy current ndi: kumene Pe-eddy current; K-nthawi zonse; n-voted liwiro la mpope; T-maginito kufala torque; F-kupanikizika mu spacer; D-m'mimba mwake wa spacer; resistivity of a material;-material Mphamvu yolimba. Pompo ikapangidwa, n ndi T zimaperekedwa ndi momwe ntchito zimagwirira ntchito. Kuchepetsa mphamvu ya eddy kungaganizidwe kokha kuchokera ku F, D, ndi zina zotero. Chovala chodzipatula chimapangidwa ndi zinthu zopanda zitsulo zokhala ndi resistivity yapamwamba komanso mphamvu zambiri, zomwe zimathandiza kwambiri kuchepetsa eddy panopa.

3. Kuwongolera kuzizira kwamafuta otsekemera
Pampu ya maginito ikathamanga, madzi pang'ono amayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kutsuka ndi kuziziritsa malo omwe ali pakati pa chozungulira chamkati cha maginito ndi manja odzipatula ndi ma friction awiri a chigawo chotsetsereka. Kuthamanga kwa choziziritsa kuzizira nthawi zambiri kumakhala 2% -3% ya kuchuluka kwa kapangidwe ka mpope. Dera la annulus pakati pa mkati mwa maginito rotor ndi dzanja lodzipatula limatulutsa kutentha kwakukulu chifukwa cha mafunde a eddy. Mafuta oziziritsa akakhala osakwanira kapena dzenje lotulutsa silili losalala kapena lotsekeka, kutentha kwa sing'anga kumakhala kokwera kuposa kutentha kwa maginito okhazikika, ndipo mkati mwa maginito rotor imataya maginito pang'onopang'ono ndipo kuyendetsa maginito kulephera. Pamene sing'anga ndi madzi kapena madzi opangidwa ndi madzi, kutentha kumakwera m'dera la annulus kumatha kusungidwa pa 3-5 ° C; pamene sing'anga ndi hydrocarbon kapena mafuta, kutentha kukwera m'dera la annulus kumatha kusungidwa pa 5-8 ° C.

4. Kutsetsereka
Zipangizo za mayendedwe otsetsereka a mapampu maginito ndi impregnated graphite, wodzazidwa ndi polytetrafluoroethylene, zomangamanga zadothi ndi zina zotero. Chifukwa zitsulo za ceramic zimakhala ndi kutentha kwabwino, kukana kwa dzimbiri, komanso kukana kukangana, mayendedwe otsetsereka a mapampu a maginito nthawi zambiri amapangidwa ndi zida zauinjiniya. Chifukwa zoumba zauinjiniya ndizowonongeka kwambiri ndipo zimakhala ndi kagawo kakang'ono kokulitsa, cholozeracho sichiyenera kukhala chaching'ono kwambiri kuti chipewe ngozi zopachikidwa pamitengo.
Popeza kutsetsereka kwa pampu ya maginito kumatenthedwa ndi sing'anga yotumizira, zida zosiyanasiyana ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito popanga ma bearings molingana ndi ma media osiyanasiyana komanso magwiridwe antchito.

5. Njira zodzitetezera
Pamene gawo loyendetsedwa la maginito pagalimoto likuyenda mochulukira kapena rotor ikakamira, mbali zazikulu ndi zoyendetsedwa ndi maginito zimangotsika kuti ziteteze mpope. Panthawiyi, maginito okhazikika pa maginito actuator amatulutsa kutaya kwa eddy ndi kutayika kwa maginito pansi pa machitidwe a maginito amphamvu a rotor yogwira ntchito, zomwe zidzachititsa kuti kutentha kwa maginito okhazikika kukwera ndi maginito actuator kutsetsereka ndi kulephera. .
Chachitatu, ubwino wa pampu maginito
Poyerekeza ndi mapampu a centrifugal omwe amagwiritsa ntchito zisindikizo zamakina kapena zisindikizo zonyamula, mapampu a maginito ali ndi zotsatirazi.
1. Pampu yapampu imasintha kuchoka ku chisindikizo champhamvu kupita ku chisindikizo chotsekedwa chokhazikika, kupeŵatu kutayikira kwapakati.
2. Palibe chifukwa chamafuta odziyimira pawokha ndi madzi ozizira, omwe amachepetsa kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu.
3. Kuchokera kulumikiza kufala kwa synchronous kukoka, palibe kukhudzana ndi kukangana. Imakhala ndi mphamvu yochepa, yogwira ntchito kwambiri, ndipo imakhala yochepetsera komanso yochepetsera kugwedezeka, zomwe zimachepetsa kugwedezeka kwa injini pampope yamagetsi komanso kukhudzidwa kwa galimoto pamene pampu imachitika kugwedezeka kwa cavitation.
4. Akadzaza kwambiri, maginito amkati ndi akunja amatsetsereka pang'ono, zomwe zimateteza mota ndi mpope.
Chachinayi, njira zodzitetezera
1. Pewani particles kulowa
(1) Ferromagnetic zonyansa ndi particles saloledwa kulowa maginito mpope pagalimoto ndi kubala mikangano awiriawiri.
(2) Mutatha kunyamula sing'anga yomwe imakhala yosavuta kuyimitsa kapena kutulutsa, itulutseni nthawi yake (kuthirani madzi oyera pampopi mutatha kuyimitsa mpope, ndikuyimitsa pakatha mphindi imodzi yogwira ntchito) kuti muwonetsetse moyo wautumiki wa chotengera chotsetsereka. .
(3) Ponyamula sing'anga yomwe ili ndi tinthu tating'onoting'ono, iyenera kusefedwa pakulowera kwa chitoliro cha mpope.
2. Pewani demagnetization
(1) Mphamvu yamagetsi yapampope singapangidwe yaying'ono kwambiri.
(2) Iyenera kuyendetsedwa pansi pazikhalidwe za kutentha zomwe zatchulidwa, ndipo kutentha kwapakati kumaletsedwa kuti zisapitirire muyeso. Chipangizo cha kutentha kwa platinamu chikhoza kuikidwa kunja kwa manja a magnetic pump kudzipatula kuti azindikire kutentha kwa dera la annulus, kotero kuti akhoza kuopseza kapena kutseka pamene kutentha kumadutsa malire.
3. Pewani kukangana kouma
(1) Kuchita maliseche ndikoletsedwa.
(2) Ndi zoletsedwa kwathunthu kuchotsa sing'anga.
(3) Ndi valavu yotuluka yotsekedwa, mpope sayenera kuthamanga mosalekeza kwa mphindi zoposa 2 kuti ateteze maginito actuator kuti asatenthe ndi kulephera.